I thank the Ceann Comhairle for his perfect French. Mr. Speakers, Taoiseach, Members of the Houses of the Oireachtas, a chairde, I am very happy and honoured to address both Houses of the Oireachtas and to greet you, as the representatives of the people of Ireland, in all your political diversity.
I take this honour as a responsibility: the responsibility to listen to all those who will be affected by the decision of the UK to leave the European Union; the responsibility to listen to your concerns, build our positions together and negotiate in our common interest; and the responsibility to explain that we need each other - that Ireland is stronger in the Union, and the EU is stronger with Ireland.
Your country has had deep historical, cultural and intellectual ties to continental Europe for many centuries. In the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, Irish colleges were set up around Europe - from Madrid, where I was yesterday, to Leuven, Paris, Rome and Prague. They contributed to writing the history of Ireland and the history of Europe, and they spread Irish culture to the Continent.
Centuries later, in 1972, the people of Ireland massively voted to take part in the European project. At that time I was 21 - that was the last century. France had a referendum on the accession of Ireland, the UK, Denmark and Norway. It was my very first vote. I campaigned for a "Yes" vote. For the UK's accession, back then, voting "Yes" was not so easy for a member of the French Gaullist Party. I did it with my full heart and I never regretted it. I regret that Brexit is happening now. I would have liked to have seen the UK staying in Europe, with Ireland and all the 26 other member states, but we are where we are.
Since 1972, we have accomplished great things together. The European Union has helped Ireland become what it is today, and Ireland has complemented and strengthened our Union. The Irish people are known as hard working and open minded. They saw EU membership as a chance to modernise their economy and society. We see this now in innovative companies and in the creation of new jobs. Investors see Ireland as being central in the European market, not peripheral. We see it across Irish cities, towns and villages. They have been enriched by fellow Europeans who have come here to work, study, travel and live.
As Seamus Heaney said to mark the enlargement of the EU in 2004:
So on a day when newcomers appear
Let it be a homecoming and let us speak ...
Move lips, move minds and make new meanings flare.
Ireland has welcomed, like you were welcomed 30 years earlier.
Ladies and gentlemen, for 44 years, Irish people have shaped the Union. They have helped turn Europe into a more open and innovative Continent. Ireland's first European Commissioner, Patrick Hillery, played a major role in improving equality between women and men before serving as your President. Another Irish Commissioner, Peter Sutherland, supported the creation of the Single Market and he established the ERASMUS programme, bringing young Europeans closer together for 30 years now and showing what free movement of people really means. Today, Phil Hogan is in charge of developing what is the Union's most complete economic policy, the Common Agricultural Policy. Speakers, ladies and gentlemen, for my part, I am proud to have been Minister with responsibility for the farmers and fishermen in my own country.
Some in large countries with imperial pasts like my own seem to think that the EU makes them smaller. This is simply not true. In smaller countries, people are often more aware that being part of the EU increases influence and opportunities, and that being part of a common project and identity does not prevent a country from keeping its own identity and making a name for itself in the world, as Enda Kenny reminded us all in his excellent St. Patrick's Day speech in Washington.
Pooling national sovereignty increases our European sovereignty. Since they are part of the EU, citizens of all our countries can study, work and settle down in another member state and be treated like nationals. European consumers can access high-quality food and agricultural products from across the EU because they all meet strict standards. Suppliers do not have to worry about border checks. Since they are part of the EU, citizens travelling to another EU country will soon be able to call without roaming charges as if they were calling from home.
Airlines, from whatever member state they come, can offer direct flights between any two EU airports. They can rely on our Open Skies agreement with the US. The EU has made travel easier. Irish airlines have been among the first to take advantage of these benefits and have profoundly changed the market. I experienced it first hand myself when I flew to Dublin last night on a rather well-known low-cost carrier - there was still no coffee but there was a little bit more seat space than before.
Honourable Members, being together makes us all stronger. Since we are part of the EU, businesses can trade goods without customs duties and documentation requirements are very simple. As part of the EU's Single Market, companies can rely on fair competition and a level playing field. Because the EU has consistently put in place high levels of environmental protection, citizens enjoy cleaner air and water. Governments can resist a race to the bottom and fight climate change more effectively together.
EU companies have privileged access to 60 foreign markets such as South Korea, Vietnam and recently Canada - thanks to the free trade agreements negotiated at EU level. Banks, insurance or investment funds can provide services throughout the Single Market, based on their establishment here in Dublin, thanks to the so-called passporting rights.
Since they are part of the EU, judges can rely on the European arrest warrant. It ensures the rapid treatment of requests for surrendering suspected criminals from another member state to bring them to justice. Since they are part of the EU, universities receive funding for research and innovation. They form one of the widest academic networks in the world.
Speakers and honourable Members, as a Union member, this is what we enjoy, and this is what a member state loses when it leaves the Union; but let me also be clear: Brexit will come at a cost also to us, the 27.
I am fully aware that some member states will be more affected than others. As chief negotiator, my objective is to reach a fair deal, one that defends the interests of the entire EU but also of individual member states.
Due to its historical and geographical ties with the UK, its shared Border and strong economic links, Ireland is in a unique position. With the fall of sterling, Brexit is already having an impact on the value of Irish exports to the UK, particularly in the agrifood sector. Many in Ireland fear the return of tensions in the North. Today, in front of these two Houses, I want to reassure the Irish people that in these negotiations, Ireland's interests will be the European Union's interests. We are in these negotiations together and a united EU will be there for Ireland.
Tomorrow I will travel to the Border with Northern Ireland and will meet farmers and workers in a dairy co-operative. I want to learn from them and listen to their concerns about how they are affected by Brexit. Some might be concerned about exports to the UK or the return of customs checks at the Border while others might fear a return to the instability of the past. In Northern Ireland, lifting the Border took time and it was only 15 years ago that checkpoints and controls totally disappeared, thanks to the Good Friday Agreement that ended decades of violence. I was the European Commissioner in charge of the PEACE programme and I have not forgotten my conversations with Mr. John Hume and Mr. David Trimble on that point. I understand the European Union's role in strengthening dialogue in Northern Ireland and in supporting the Good Friday Agreement. European integration helped to remove borders that once existed on maps and in minds. Now, Brexit changes the external borders of the EU but I will work with Ireland to avoid a hard Border.
The UK's departure from the EU will have consequences. Together, we have a duty to speak the truth in that regard. Customs controls are part of EU border management. They protect the Single Market, as well as our food safety and standards. However, as I have said many times, nothing in these negotiations should put peace at risk. This was recognised by the 27 Heads of State and Government two weeks ago. They were very clear that the Good Friday Agreement must be respected in all of its dimensions. I also made it very clear that the Border issue will be one of my three priorities for the first phase of the negotiations, together with citizens' rights and the financial settlement. We must make sufficient progress on these points before we start discussing the future of our relationship with the UK. The sooner this happens, the better.
If the conditions are right, a close partnership with the UK is in everybody's interests, particularly Ireland's. Currently, Ireland exports 14% of its goods and 20% of its services to the UK, which is twice the EU average. The agriculture and energy sectors are fully interconnected on the island of Ireland. Of course, such facts must be put in perspective. Before Ireland’s accession to the EU in 1973, the UK accounted for over 50% of Irish trade. Today, Ireland exports much more to the other EU countries than to the UK and the Single Market is a key asset for its financial and pharmaceutical industries. Nevertheless, the specific issues that Ireland faces deserve all our attention. Ireland shares a land border with the UK and most of its trade to the EU goes through the UK. This is why I engaged with the Dáil and Seanad, the Government and its administrators, as well as all the Irish Members of the European Parliament immediately after taking up my position. Ireland has done remarkable preparatory work and we must use our combined strength and work together to deliver solutions.
I want to listen to the concerns of the Irish people but I also want to pass on a message of hope and determination. For all the problems it creates, Brexit also reminds us of what the EU has built together, what each of us enjoys as EU citizens and how we can further improve the European project. The EU is not perfect; we know that. President Juncker put it candidly on the occasion of Europe Day this week. There are lessons to draw from the crisis and not only in Ireland. There are lessons to draw from Brexit and from the rising scores of populist parties in many countries, including mine. Let us not confuse public opinion with populism. We should listen to people's feelings and respond with policy change. This is how we will fight populism. I am convinced that Ireland will play a major role in these changes, as a centre for innovation, a strong and sustainable agrifood producer, a bridge across the Atlantic and as a supporter of the future relationship that we need to build with the UK.
Our objective is clear - we want these negotiations to succeed. I want us to reach a deal. The UK has been a member of the EU for 44 years and it should remain a close partner. We will need to negotiate a bold, ambitious but also fair free trade agreement. We will also need the same ambition for our research and innovation networks and for the fight against climate change, as well as in foreign policy, international co-operation and development. Almost 27 years ago, Nelson Mandela spoke in this very room just a few months after he was released from jail. He praised Ireland's leadership within the European Community to maintain strong pressure on the apartheid system in South Africa. Tomorrow, our international partners should be able to turn to the EU and the UK and find in them strong and united advocates of our shared European values. We also need the same ambition in the field of our internal and external security, whether it is the fight against terrorism, the exchange of information, the fight against hybrid threats or cybersecurity.
If we put things in the right order, if we negotiate with mutual respect, without any aggression or naivety and are open to finding solutions, there is no reason our strong Europe cannot maintain a strong relationship with the UK.
Dear Speakers and honourable Members, I have been a national parliamentarian for more than 17 years, both in the National Assembly and the French Senate. I will now listen carefully to the views of the Taoiseach and of all party leaders. In these negotiations and the public debate that now starts you have, as a national parliament, an essential role to play together with the European Parliament and civil society. That is why I have been so honoured by your invitation to address the two Houses of the Parliament of Ireland. Go raibh míle maith agaibh.